Categories
Psychiatry disorders

Bulimia nervosa

Bulimia is an eating disorder characterized by binge eating followed by purging. Binge eating refers to eating a large amount of food in a short amount of time. Purging refers to the attempts to get rid of the food consumed. This may be done by vomiting or taking laxatives. Other efforts to lose weight may include the use of diuretics, stimulants, water fasting, or excessive exercise.[Most people with bulimia are at a normal weight. The forcing of vomiting may result in thickened skin on the knuckles and breakdown of the teeth. Bulimia is frequently associated with other mental disorders such as depression, anxiety, and problems with drugs or alcohol.[2] There is also a higher risk of suicide and self-harm.

 

Symptoms:

 

A fixation on the number of calories consumed

A fixation on and extreme consciousness of one’s weight

Low self-esteem and/or self-harming or Suicidal tendencies

An irregular menstrual cycle in women

Regular trips to the bathroom, especially soon after eating

Depression, anxiety disorders and sleep disorders

Frequent occurrences involving consumption of abnormally large portions of food

The use of laxatives, diuretics, and diet pills

Compulsive or excessive exercise

Unhealthy/dry skin, hair, nails and lips

Fatigue or exhaustion

 

Treatment:

 

Antidepressants may help reduce the symptoms of bulimia when used along with psychotherapy. The only antidepressant specifically approved by the Food and Drug Administration to treat bulimia is fluoxetine (Prozac), a type of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI), which may help even if you’re not depressed.

 

Categories
Psychiatry disorders

Bipolar

Bipolar disorder, also known as manic depression, is a mental illness that brings severe high and low moods and changes in sleep, energy, thinking, and behavior. People who have bipolar disorder can have periods in which they feel overly happy and energized and other periods of feeling very sad, hopeless, and sluggish.

Symptoms:

Periods of depression and elevated mood Mania

Depression period symptoms:

Low mood, low self-esteem, loss of interest in normally enjoyable activities, low energy, pain without a clear cause, sadness, negative thinking, hapless and suicide plan.

Mania period symptoms:

Elevated mood (either euphoric or irritable), flight of ideas and pressure of speech, increased energy, decreased need and desire for sleep and hyperactivity.

Treatment:

Medications may include: Mood stabilizers. You’ll typically need mood-stabilizing medication to control manic or hypomanic episodes. Examples of mood stabilizers include lithium (Lithobid), valproic acid (Depakene), divalproex sodium (Depakote), carbamazepine (Tegretol, Equetro, others) and lamotrigine (Lamictal).

 

 

Categories
Psychiatry disorders

Depression

Depression is a state of low mood . It can affect a person’s thoughts, behavior, motivation, feelings, and sense of well-being. It may feature sadness, difficulty in thinking and concentration and a significant increase or decrease in appetite and time spent sleeping. People experiencing depression may have feelings of hopelessness and, sometimes, suicidal thoughts. It can either be short term or long term. The core symptom of depression is said to be anhedonia, which refers to loss of interest or a loss of feeling of pleasure in certain activities that usually bring joy to people. Depressed mood is a symptom of some mood disorders such as major depressive disorder or dysthymia; it is a normal temporary reaction to life events, such as the loss of a loved one; and it is also a symptom of some physical diseases and a side effect of some drugs and medical treatments.

Symptoms:

Hopeless, Lost interest, Increased fatigue and sleep problems, Anxiety, Irritability, Changes in appetite and weight, Uncontrollable emotions and Looking at death.

Treatment:

If you have had some of the mentioned symptoms for more than two weeks, you might be suffering from major depression disorder.

there are varying treatments available, from lifestyle changes to medications.

Three of the more common methods used in depression treatment include cognitive behavioral therapy, interpersonal therapy, and psychodynamic therapy.

Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) is now the most common class used for depression. Examples include citalopram (Celexa), escitalopram (Lexapro), paroxetine (Paxil, Pexeva), fluoxetine (Prozac, Sarafem), and sertraline (Zoloft).

 

 

Categories
Psychiatry disorders

Anxiety

Anxiety disorders are a group of mental disorders characterized by significant feelings of fear.Anxiety is a worry about future events, while fear is a reaction to current events.

There are several anxiety disorders, including

1- generalized anxiety disorder,

2-specific phobia,

3- social anxiety disorder,

4- separation anxiety disorder,

5- agoraphobia ,

6- panic disorder.

Symptoms:

Increased heart rate, shakiness, headache, paresthesias, fasciculations, vertigo, presyncope

as palpitations, tachycardia, or Muscular, as fatigue, tremors or tetany.

Treatment

Psychotherapy. Also known as talk therapy or psychological  counseling, psychotherapy involves working with a therapist to reduce your anxiety symptoms. Cognitive behavioral therapy is the most effective form of psychotherapy for generalized anxiety disorder.

Firstline medications are the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors and serotonin-norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors. Benzodiazepines are not recommended for routine use. Other treatment options include pregabalin, tricyclic antidepressants, buspirone, moclobemide and others.

 

 

Categories
Psychiatry disorders

Panic

Panic disorder is an anxiety disorder characterized by reoccurring unexpected panic attacks. Panic attacks are sudden periods of intense fear that may include palpitations, sweating, shaking, shortness of breath, numbness, or a feeling that something terrible is going to happen. The maximum degree of symptoms occurs within minutes. There may be ongoing worries about having further attacks and avoidance of places where attacks have occurred in the past.

Symptoms:

Sudden periods of intense fear, palpitations, sweating, shaking ,shortness of breath and numbness.

Risk factors:

Family history, smoking, psychological stress and history of child abuse.

Treatment:

Panic disorder is generally treated with psychotherapy, medication, or both. Talk with your doctor about the best treatment for you. Psychotherapy. A type of psychotherapy called cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) is especially useful as a first-line treatment for panic disorder.

Medications can help reduce symptoms associated with panic attacks as well as depression if that’s an issue for you. Several types of medication have been shown to be effective in managing symptoms of panic attacks, including:
Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs). Generally safe with a low risk of serious side effects, SSRI antidepressants are typically recommended as the first choice of medications to treat panic attacks. SSRIs include fluoxetine (Prozac), paroxetine (Paxil, Pexeva) and sertraline (Zoloft).
Serotonin and norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors (SNRIs).
Benzodiazepines. These sedatives are central nervous system depressants and include alprazolam (Xanax) and clonazepam (Klonopin).